The listed sports betting sector has spent more than half a billion dollars on marketing since gambling ads on daytime and primetime television were banned in 2015.
An audit of annual reports of ASX-listed bookmakers by The Australian Financial Review found they had spent $503.7 million collectively on marketing since the ban was introduced to try to protect children from betting ads.
The amount far exceeded the $125.5 million companies spent on advertising in the five years prior to the restriction.
The sharp rise in marketing spending prompted the Alliance for Gambling Reform to call for urgent legislative restrictions.
"To us, it's really indicative of increasingly aggressive tactics being used by the industry," said Margaret Quixley, the alliance's campaigns director.
"What we'd like to see, essentially, is a full ban across the platform. So across all broadcast television."